(2) I have answered this in my previous comment. She must tell the border control that she the purpose of her visit is to live in Ireland with you.
The border staff may use their discretion and decide whether she should be given a long-stay stamp which allows her to do so or not.
If they decide not to give her that stamp, she may get a temporary visit stamp of max 3 months instead, or she may be deported (which rarely happens). If they do decide to give her the long-stay stamp, she will have 3 months to apply to the local Garda station or GNIB office (depending on where you live) to apply for a Stamp 4. Without a proper Type D visa, there's a fairly big chance that she may need to wait for 6-12 months before the application can be approved.
(3) As above, this process cannot be started until she is landed by the border control at the airport. Well, in theory, the real starting point of the process is when she applies for a Type D Join Family visa.
(4) This is a question for your local embassy. Some embassies and consulates post their processing time
online. For example, the Embassy in India said it takes 10 days to process a Join Family visa where the accompanying sponsor is a CSEP holder, and 2 months to process the Join Family visa where the sponsor is an Irish national. https://www.dfa.ie/irish-embassy/india/ ... s-appeals/
I don't see a processing time for Philippines so you have to contact them in person.
(5) Again this is within your local embassy's discretion. A few years ago it's typically valid for a month, but I haven't seen any recently. In the UK it has been shortened to 2 weeks. You can certainly tell the embassy what your expected departure date is and ask them to make sure the visa is valid for that date.